1. Glossary

Indigenous traditional knowledge

Traditional knowledge refers to tradition-based literary, artistic or scientific works; performances; inventions; scientific discoveries; designs; marks, names and symbols; undisclosed information; and all other tradition-based innovations and creations resulting from intellectual activity in the industrial, scientific, literary or artistic fields.

“Tradition-based” refers to knowledge systems, creations, innovations and cultural expressions which have generally been transmitted from generation to generation; are generally regarded as pertaining to a particular people or its territory; and, are constantly evolving in response to a changing environment.

Categories of traditional knowledge could include: agricultural knowledge; scientific knowledge; technical knowledge; ecological knowledge; medicinal knowledge, including related medicines and remedies; biodiversity-related knowledge; traditional cultural expressions (“expressions of folklore”) in the form of music, dance, song, handicrafts, designs, stories and artwork; elements of language, such as names, geographical indications and symbols; and, movable cultural properties. Excluded from this description would be items not resulting from intellectual activity in the industrial, scientific, literary or artistic fields, such as human remains, languages in general, and other similar elements of “heritage” in the broad sense. (Source: World Intellectual Property Organization)